The scientific name of Coriander is Coriandrum sativum L., it’s an annual herb, mainly cultivated for its tender green leaves as well as its fruit. It is native of the Mediterranean region. In India, it is grown in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Major portion is though consumed domestically and a part is being exported.
Coriander fruits have a fragrant odour and pleasant aromatic taste. Its essential oil content gives its odour and taste, oil content varies from 0.1 to 1.0 % in the dry seeds. The major usage of essential oil is for flavouring liquors, coca preparations in confectionary and also to mask the offensive odours in pharmaceutical preparations.
The dried ground fruits are the major ingredients of the curry powder. The whole fruits are also used to flavour foods like pickles, sauces and confectionary. The young plants as well as the leaves are used in the preparation of chutney and are also used as seasonings in curries, soups, sauces and chutneys. It has medicinal properties too. Fruits are said to have carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic and aphrodisiac properties.
Coriander belongs to the Apiaceae family. It is a smooth, erect annual herb 30 to 70 cm high, lower leaves broad with crenately lobed margins, upper leaves finely cut with lineary lobes, flowers small, white or pink in compound terminal umbels, fruits – schizocarp, globular, yellow-brown, ribbed, 2 seeds, ripe seeds are aromatic.
It is a tropical crop and can be grown throughout the year (except very hot season i.e. March-May) for leaf purpose, but for higher grain yield it has to be grown in specific season. A dry and cold weather free from frost especially during flowering and fruit setting stage favours good grain production.
In the North and Central parts of India and Andhra Pradesh, it is mostly grown as a Rabi season crop and hence sowing is done between middle of October and middle of November. In certain pockets of the above area, late kharif crop is sometimes sown in August-September. In Tamil Nadu, as an irrigated crop, coriander is raised in June-July and September-October. In the first season, the crop matures late with an extended growth phase during January-February. The growth and the yield rain-fed conditions, it is sown during September-October, at the onset of Northeast monsoon and harvested during January-February.
The crop will be ready for harvest in about 90 to 110 days depending upon the varieties and growing season. Harvesting has to be done when the fruits are fully ripe and start changing from green to brown colour.
Many improved varieties of coriander are now available for cultivation in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan states.
We at Zoff procure the best of variety from various location of India, store at our own cold storage. We are first in India to use Air Cooling Technology for grinding spices and bring you the fresh masala direct to your kitchen.
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